Before starting the course
Students are expected to have basic knowledge on Genetics.

Learning aims
During this three week course, the student will have the opportunity to discuss and have some practical sessions of the principles governing human genetics, developmental biology and cancer. Specifically we aimed to:
  • Explain the basic principles underlying the structure, regulation and function of genes.
  • Explain the basis of genetic variability and the cytogenetic of several genetic diseases, clinical implication and potential therapeutic applicability.
  • To evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of several biological models and laboratorial tools used in research and diagnosis.
  • Identify the major steps of embryonic development and explain the concept of organizer based in the studies of Spemann e Mangold.
  • Explain the concept of maternal, morphogenic and homeotic genes and the embryo acquisition of temporo-spacial information.
  • Explain the principles of gene therapy and reproductive cloning.
  • Explain the roles of the different hallmarks of cancer.
  • Explain the different pathways of cellular communication and their role in cellular differentiation and carcinogenesis processes.
  • Identify the distinct types of genes associated with tumours, explaining the major genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of deregulation.

Supporting material
Scientific papers and hands-outs of theoretical lessons.


This course does not provide credentials for the exercise of medicine for those without appropriate training, recognition and registered at the "Ordem dos Médicos".​​